Romanesque architecture is an architectural style in Western Europe of X—XIII centuries. Severe, serf nature of architecture — monasteries, churches, castles. Characteristic half from motives of architectural decoration — images of animals, plants, Dating back to folk art.
Gothic — an architectural style that emerged in the XII century in France in the late middle ages and spread throughout Western Europe. Characterized by the subordination of the architectural forms of vertical rhythm, with Lancet arches on the ribs (the ribs), the abundance of stone carvings and sculptural decorations. In the Gothic Cathedral, the pointed arch thrust is transmitted to the outer supporting pillars (buttresses) with arches (flying buttresses).
And romance . Gothic architecture developed in the same mainly socio-historical conditions. General were, in theory, and compositional techniques. The main difference between these styles was that the Romanesque was characterized by extreme massiveness of the buildings, and the Gothic design has become more perfect, light weight in a number of frame structures in nature .
From the reign of Charlemagne began to produce the so-called Romanesque style with its characteristic semi-circular vaulted arch. Therefore, the XI—XII centuries in the history of medieval culture called the Romanesque period . linking Continue reading
Painting the stone age in the Sahara. Hunters ask for success in hunting at caledonii
People are already 30-40 thousand years draws himself and his surroundings. And we understand how and why on the cave walls of the stone age have any images of bison, mammoth, deer, hunter with a dart in his hand. But some subjects of ancient paintings be explained quite impossible.
Scientists do not know what method of printing is the most ancient. Some say that this figure “pencil” out of a piece of red ochre or other “coloring” of the stone. Others argue, that was before the engraving, because the handprints on the cave wall over a painted bison. Still others believe that the first was a sculpture, more precisely, the relief is in wet clay fingers squeezed randomly overlapping lines.
In the jungles of Nicaragua discovered a cave painting in which, according to experts, depicts the aircraft with a power plant of an unknown type. In Australia have found carved at a height of 10 meters huge paintings of people in strange
clothes that were never worn by the inhabitants of this continent. As primitive artists “doodling” at this altitude — is unclear, because it needed to fit the size of a three-storey house, a stone age people to build such couldn.
The entrance to the cave of Lascaux. France
The ARCHITECTURE, the art and science of building.
The earliest architectural structures provide only partial protection. The Bedouin tent or the Indian wigwam served as shelter from sun, wind and rain, but almost failed to keep out the cold; in a needle Eskimos also found refuge from wild animals.
But man seeks to embody in the forms of architecture and his pursuit of the beautiful, their ideas and hopes. Every piece of architecture is design but not all design becomes a work of architecture.
The architecture has three fundamental characteristics. First, the building should meet its intended purpose. If you understand the functionality of the building according to its purpose, then, in the words theorist of functionalism of Louis Sullivan, the best buildings of all time were functional. Secondly, in addition to utilitarian purposes, the architecture expresses the spiritual needs of a person, consisting in the creation and contemplation of beautiful, harmonious images. The third criterion for evaluating architectural structures such as its reliability.
Designs of buildings are determined primarily by the tastes of the people and the spirit of the time.
Architecture requires visual unity, artistic integrity, whatever functions may have the construction. The various elements should fit each other, and each element a. Continue reading