The types of structures.
In a country with economy based on agriculture, which determined the seasons and the periodic floods of the Nile, was the natural development of astronomy, geometry, geodesy. In Ancient Egypt, the science of measurement was at a high level and allowed them to empirically solve quite complex mathematical problems related to prokladnogo channels, determining the capacity of reservoirs, breakdown and leveling plans giant temple constructions.
The people’s architecture of Egypt-based forms originating from wattle and daub structures. The Egyptians have long built huts of reeds and coastal vine.
Sometimes he used the stone mined in the upper reaches and right Bank of the Nile. Continue reading
GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE . Unlike South America, millions of years ago was part of Gondwana, North America – a fragment of Laurasia – the Ancient continent of the Northern hemisphere. The basis of North America is a long Precambrian North American platform . In the North-East of its crystalline basement, composed of granite and gneiss, comes to the surface in the Canadian shield . In the rest of offset by a strong Foundation layer of sedimentary rocks (Sandstone, limestone).
From all sides of the platform in different geological time were “Built” folded area. In particular, strong folding formed on the approach to the site of the Pacific – North American lithospheric plates .
More than 10 thousand years ago the climate of the Northern hemisphere was much more severe: snow fell during the long winter, not had time to melt and accumulate. Gradually it turned into ice. As a consequence, on the North of the continent was formed by a giant glacier covering. Hundreds of years he moved to the South along the uneven surface of the continent. In ice versely large and small fragments of rocks Continue reading
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style in Western Europe of X—XIII centuries. Severe, serf nature of architecture — monasteries, churches, castles. Characteristic half from motives of architectural decoration — images of animals, plants, Dating back to folk art.
Gothic — an architectural style that emerged in the XII century in France in the late middle ages and spread throughout Western Europe. Characterized by the subordination of the architectural forms of vertical rhythm, with Lancet arches on the ribs (the ribs), the abundance of stone carvings and sculptural decorations. In the Gothic Cathedral, the pointed arch thrust is transmitted to the outer supporting pillars (buttresses) with arches (flying buttresses).
And romance . Gothic architecture developed in the same mainly socio-historical conditions. General were, in theory, and compositional techniques. The main difference between these styles was that the Romanesque was characterized by extreme massiveness of the buildings, and the Gothic design has become more perfect, light weight in a number of frame structures in nature .
From the reign of Charlemagne began to produce the so-called Romanesque style with its characteristic semi-circular vaulted arch. Therefore, the XI—XII centuries in the history of medieval culture called the Romanesque period . linking Continue reading