The Architecture Of Ancient Egypt
The types of structures.
In a country with economy based on agriculture, which determined the seasons and the periodic floods of the Nile, was the natural development of astronomy, geometry, geodesy. In Ancient Egypt, the science of measurement was at a high level and allowed them to empirically solve quite complex mathematical problems related to prokladnogo channels, determining the capacity of reservoirs, breakdown and leveling plans giant temple constructions.
The people’s architecture of Egypt-based forms originating from wattle and daub structures. The Egyptians have long built huts of reeds and coastal vine.
Sometimes he used the stone mined in the upper reaches and right Bank of the Nile.
The tree even in the rich buildings were used only for the most critical elements of the building: footings and floor joists. The value of the tree caused an increased interest in plant motifs in architectural decoration.
The main factor affecting the spatial decision dwelling in Egypt, was the need to shelter from the scorching sun. Settlements were grouped by blocks, forming a shady narrow streets with blind facades of houses of clay, all life in focusing on a small courtyard.
Rooms had only small ventilation holes. Bedrooms were arranged under canopies on the roofs. The heat were saved by water and greenery. Rooms separated by thick walls, was covered with solid flooring from palm trunks, stacked mats, and then a thick layer of clay.
The lack of trees for intermediate supports are not allowed, as in Mesopotamia, to increase the span of premises. Agricultural and storage compartments sometimes overlap the arches from raw.
Villas by top government officials and priests occupied a large territory, well landscaped, with ponds and running water. The dwelling, as a rule, oriented to the North; commercial services are isolated in the backyard. Numerous storage rooms and barns encircled the front part, demonstrating the wealth and nobility of the owner.
The idea of the afterlife gets maximum development in the Egyptian architecture. Was placed the Mummy of the deceased in burial structures – mastaba. Externally the mastaba is deaf trapezoidal volume with a false entrance and a cult room. Beneath deep in the earth located one or several burial chambers, where he established the sarcophagi with the mummies. The camera was connected to the ground part of the burial of an open vertical shaft that allowed, in accordance with the requirements of the cult of the dead, the “soul” of the deceased to move freely in space. Entire neighborhoods such burials – “the city of the dead” – occupied a designated territory.
The palaces and tombs of pharaohs and important dignitaries it was built of brick, and then constructed starting from the stone is an eternal material, or placed in rock massifs.
Artistic comprehension of structures of mud brick, mastering the art of stone processing have become the basis on which was formed the monumental imagery of architecture slavery of Egypt.
Stages of the history of architecture of Ancient Egypt follow the periods of its socio – economic development, known from written sources:
The old Kingdom III – beginning of IV dynasty (3000 – 2400 years BC. C.)
Middle – Kingdom – XI – XIII dynasty (2100 – 1700 BC)
New Kingdom – XVIII – XX dynasties (1584 – 1071 BC)
Late Egyptian (1071 – 332 BCE)
Hellenistic Egypt (332 – 30 BC)
In 30 BC Egypt becomes a province of the Roman Empire, and gradually loses cultural autonomy. New flowering begins in VIII century in the era of Islam.
The movement of the economic centers in the Northern Mediterranean, the emergence of new States with more progressive forms of socio – economic organization to undermine the conservative principles of the slavery of Egypt.
The architecture of Ancient Egypt is most fully reflected his time and gave her the social order, but to achieve it, the overwhelming monumentality and grandeur of the works have not received a direct continuation in the architecture of other Nations.
However, various types of architectural buildings (Church halls, peristyle), the skill composition of complex temple complexes, the ability of harmonious integration of architecture into the natural surroundings, experience the stylization of flora and fauna in rich reliefs and painting, as well as in many different types of columns anticipated many developments of the world of architecture, although in other forms and proportions.
Architecture was the organizing environment, where problems have been solved synthesis construction technique, mastery of spatial composition, painting and sculpture.
Role models exceptional originality and brightness to the art of Ancient Egypt, whetted his symbolism often rolled wave on the history of human culture.