Romanesque architecture is an architectural style in Western Europe of X—XIII centuries. Severe, serf nature of architecture — monasteries, churches, castles. Characteristic half from motives of architectural decoration — images of animals, plants, Dating back to folk art.
Gothic — an architectural style that emerged in the XII century in France in the late middle ages and spread throughout Western Europe. Characterized by the subordination of the architectural forms of vertical rhythm, with Lancet arches on the ribs (the ribs), the abundance of stone carvings and sculptural decorations. In the Gothic Cathedral, the pointed arch thrust is transmitted to the outer supporting pillars (buttresses) with arches (flying buttresses).
And romance . Gothic architecture developed in the same mainly socio-historical conditions. General were, in theory, and compositional techniques. The main difference between these styles was that the Romanesque was characterized by extreme massiveness of the buildings, and the Gothic design has become more perfect, light weight in a number of frame structures in nature .
From the reign of Charlemagne began to produce the so-called Romanesque style with its characteristic semi-circular vaulted arch. Therefore, the XI—XII centuries in the history of medieval culture called the Romanesque period . linking this is the name of the main stylistic feature of art of the time, the prototype of which was an arch of ancient Rome.
Extant because time of Church, mainly monastic, buildings of Basilica type. They have the form of a Latin cross. It is a massive stone building, with narrow oblong Windows in thick walls and stocky columns inside . separating from each other the main and side naves. A characteristic element become massive towers . The entrance is decorated by portal (from Latin “port” — the door), embedded in the thickness of the walls reduced in the future semicircular arches.
Romanesque architecture was the result of combining the indigenous and Byzantine forms. It was the early stage of development of Western architecture . Determined new types of structures – feudal castle . fortifications, large urban churches, cathedrals . Appeared and a new type of urban residential houses.
· The harsh nature of fortress architecture,
· a monumental, slightly fragmented onshore massif form
· narrow, small Windows,
· the feeling of a massive stone shell.
· Straight lines, angles. The only curvilinear form – a semicircular arch (barrel vaults, the top of the bridge window).
· Horizontal articulations prevail over the vertical.
· Favorite type of construction is the tower.
The Romanesque style was formed in the epoch of feudal fragmentation, and therefore the functional purpose of Romanesque architecture — defense . The motto of the Romanesque style, “My home is my castle”.
The main type of secular architectural structures can be considered a feudal castle, which dominated the donjon — a tower house, rectangular or polyhedral shape. On the ground floor of the donjon was located utility room, second front room, on the second — living rooms of owners of the castle, fourth dwelling protection n servants. At the bottom usually were dungeons and prison, on the roof of the patrol area.
For maximum defence castles were built on top of a mountain, in the bends of rivers on the island and in other inaccessible places. The castle was surrounded by a high stone
Gothic architecture . and Gothic architecture, which was formed before the end of the middle ages, there is a phenomenon that has never struck me as the taste and imagination of man.
The name of this artistic style comes from the Italian words “maniere Gothic” — “the Gothic style” (from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready ). In Italy of the Renaissance so-called medieval art in Northern Europe — the artistic style that prevailed in Western, Central and Eastern part of Europe between the middle of the XII century and the XV—XVI centuries.
In Gothic art, which replaced the Romanesque style influenced the formation of Nations and national States, the reinforcement of cities and trade and craft circles, the development of secular features in the urban and knightly culture.
The world’s leading architectural style in the Gothic was the Cathedral, towering over the city buildings and sometimes are able to accommodate the entire adult population of the city. In the Cathedral and around it revolved the social life of citizens. Frame system of Gothic architecture allowed to create an unprecedented height and breadth, the interior of the Cathedral (the height of the interior of the Cathedral in Beauvais in France 47 m) and penetrate walls huge Windows with multi-colored stained glass Windows.
· Aspiration of the Cathedral up
· huge openwork towers (the height of the towers of the Cathedral in Cologne in Germany 157 m),
· high arches, Windows,
· numerous decorative details (tracery Gables — “vimpeli”, turrets — “Fiala”, curls, “crabby”, round Windows with sophisticated cover — “roses”).
Gothic and Romanesque styles – unity and contrast
As the main differences between the new Gothic Abbey Church of Saint-Denis from the old Romanesque Basilica of Abbot suger of the calls:
– prostranstvennoi (choir “ennobled by the beauty of length and width”),
– verticalism (the wall of the Central nave “suddenly rises”)
– saturation light (“the light is amazing and never-ending sacred Windows”).