Slightly Gothic in Bohemian country: bohemicus
Slightly Gothic in Bohemian country.
I wonder, will the readers of any Association following image:
People not specifically interested in the history of Prague architecture, is unlikely to recognize these buildings. I will not mystify, they do not exist. More precisely, does not exist (and never existed) in the form shown. This two unrealized projects of the restructuring and negotiatie Cathedral of St. Vitus. In the end, was elected the other option, one that I admire now guests of Prague:
Usually the story of the Cathedral of St. Vita begins with an account of his predecessors – Romanesque rotunda and the Basilica, which was built consistently on this site since the dawn of the tenth century. It is easy to guess that they are not preserved. Evidence of their existence are fragmentary remains of a masonry height of a few bricks under the Cathedral. The founder of the Cathedral, called Charles IV, the Czech Republic is considered the founder (Charles University, Charles bridge, Karlstejn, etc.), and bearing in historiography the official title of father of the Fatherland.
The great Hussite myth, so urgent in times of European wars, of the struggle of all against all, and borders on the castle, in a United Europe would look an obvious anachronism. Therefore, it is promptly moved to the third plan, and the Central figure of national history became Karl of the house of Luxembourg, Bohemian king, Roman, Lombard and kalatsky, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, a graduate of the French court and the spouse of Blanca of Valois. In 2005 he won the competition “the Greatest Czech” (similar to “Name of Russia”). During the discussion of his candidacy, the question arose and was owned by the Father of the Fatherland Czech language? It was wisely decided that, as there is no direct evidence to the contrary, in principle, could possess, so to be the Greatest Czech he is not obstructed.
This example shows that people are prudent national mythology is multilateral. This allows them to bask in that part which is most generously lit by the sun .
It is believed that the construction of the Cathedral began in 1344 in connection with the raising of the status of the Prague bishopric to archiepiscopal. The project was led by Matthieu of Arras, who arrived from Avignon. Built Mathieu 8 years and had, quite frankly, not very much. After his death, the business passed into the hands of the family Barleria. Most of the sources mentions the founder of family by Peter Parler from Germany. There is however a version that was Pierre from France or Parla Pietro Parlare from Italy. However, all agree that the last name is derived from the Latin word parlerius, meaning “Builder” or “master”, so Parlerei is the builders name Builders. Anyone who had in this family, too, is not entirely clear.
To build them for 75 years managed the nave and the apse with the altar in the Eastern part of the building and a Large tower on the South side. The services were held in the unfinished part of the temple, with the fourth side fenced off with a temporary wooden wall.
With the beginning of Hussite wars in 1419, the active phase of construction of the temple ended the Hussite wars in Czech history – is something like the flood. To make sense of the flood and antediluvian times is extremely difficult. So I rarely and reluctantly affect Bohemian history before 1526 when after the accession of the Habsburgs in the event finally starts to come logic and even some proof.
Of course, during the Hussite storms and other dramatic events was badly damaged and the Cathedral. In 1541 he was the victim of a fire that devastated the entire left-Bank part of Prague. In 1550 – 1561 it was restored by Paolo della Stella, Hans Tirol and Boniface wohlmuth. The result of their efforts was a Renaissance building, without significant changes, where they remained until the second half of the eighteenth century. Then once again burned the Great tower, after which she renewed Niccolo Pacassi (1771), gave the building some Baroque features.
In the middle of the XIX century, the Cathedral of St. Vitus looked like this:
When the era of national revival, it was decided that the Shrine to be completed. Initial ideas Mathieu of Arras and Peter Parler no one could say anything definite, but all proceeded from the fact that the Cathedral needs to be Gothic. In 1844 there was an organization called “Association for the completion of the temple.” In addition to fundraising, its members have been studying the Gothic in Germany and France.
In 1859 work began. Plans have repeatedly changed, but the overall approach remained – Renaissance and Baroque elements were replaced by Gothic. The process concerned not only the Church of St. Vitus, he went across the country and raised a lot of objects.
Illustration with which I began this post is a project Joseph Kranner supervised the construction until his death in 1871, He predicted in the first place negotiatio the Great tower, which was planned to be raised to a height of 160 meters. The second picture is the project of Joseph Mosquera, also intending to regotiate of the Great tower, and at the same time to build two towers on the West side. Mocker was the most significant of negotitation. To him owe their present view of powder tower, both towers of the Charles bridge, old new synagogue, karlštejn, křivoklát, konopiště, the temple of St. Barbora in Kutna Hora and more.
On photosgraphy 1887 captured one of the phases of construction.
Today’s view of the Cathedral from the same point of view
Mocker was a radical purist who sought to create “pure abstract designed Gothic”, according to today’s critics. In the area of karlštejn he did not hesitate to demolish the entire building is not stylistically appropriate to his ideas, and replace them with new ones. In the early twentieth century, his approach was criticised, but it was subsequently mitigated. Today, purism is considered to be an expression of the spirit of the era.
But to complete the work on the Cathedral of St. Vitus Mocker not done. He died in 1899.
Work was continued by Kamil Hilbert, representative of the Vienna school, which contrasted with a much more subtle approach to the heritage of antiquity. Vienna school believed that stylistically disparate elements of architectural monuments also serve as valuable evidence of bygone eras.
So today we can see how two Gothic towers rising above the main entrance on the West side, combined with Big Baroque tower that adorn the temple from the South.
The Cathedral was completed in 1929, was Consecrated on 2 may, and for visitors was opened on September 28. Before the Church was also visited by President Masaryk. He never went there even once (under the influence of his American wife, Masaryk moved into Protestantism). However, this did not prevent him to richly endow the Cathedral, in which he saw not an iconic building and a national treasure.
A BONUS FOR TRUE FANS OF GOTHIC.
Josef Mocker was the largest, but certainly not the only negotiation in Bohemia. Here is one of restoration works of another prominent architect of the time, Gustav Meretta:
The Cathedral of St. Wenceslas in Olomouc
Portrait bust of Gustav Meretta that adorn the Cathedral of St. Wenceslas in Olomouc e