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The Time Of The Cathedrals

The Time Of The Cathedrals

 

II est venu le temps des cathedrales, le monde est entre dans un nouveau millenaire – “the time of cathedrals, the world enters a new Millennium”, – declare the heroes at the beginning of the world-famous musical “Notre Dame de Paris”, provoked a new round of interest in the creation of Hugo and to the Paris temple. “The time of the cathedrals” is not a poetic figure, invented by the author of the lyrics of the musical by Luc Plamondon and sustainable historical term that envelopes all the classic French middle Ages. A good phrase came from the pen of a French art historian Georges Duby, author of the same book. The time of the cathedrals of almost six centuries of religious, cultural, political and everyday life of France and neighbouring territories.

It starts at the very end of the tenth century, when all Europe stood in eschatological anticipation of the magic 1000 years – then and 1033, the millennial anniversary of the Lord’s suffering. The Europeans believed that for significant dates will follow the end of the world, put to rest the earthly life. The Apocalypse did not happen – but happened universal catharsis. Europe has entered the new Millennium refreshed, mystical overcame fear and began to build updated updated art and religious culture. a New era began for the convent walls, giving rise to philosophy and art, initially intended only for the initiated. At the same time increasing the power of secular feudal lords, king weaves his person in the hierarchy of spiritual entities to use this to unite the shattered possessions. In the XII century in the sky of France was born anew vzmetayutsya tall, slender walls of cathedrals, each of which is more than just a building. This is embodied praise the divine greatness, the model of an ideal space, where the heavenly world is connected with the earthly and secular – Church.

Gothic culture in a new way and looking at the unification of believers – starting with Abbot Suger, took on the rebuilding of new theological foundations of the Church in the Abbey of Saint-Denis in 1040. He declared: to bring people together will help divine light, and therefore light, its distribution and effects created by them and become the organizing principle of the cathedrals of the new type. Internal walls disappear, and in place of solitude comes a unity, a commitment to the implementation of this task have given rise to many ingenious engineering finds. The attention of builders as never before – and maybe never later chained to Windows. Their openings become significantly more laborious and filled with stained glass Windows composed. And through them poured a bright light, which shone in their multi-colored reflections dancing on the long age of the cathedrals.

1.DAME DE VERDUN opens the age of the cathedrals: its construction began in the year 990 at the order of Bishop Eamon, who wanted to erect on the ruins of the late antique Church in the Romanesque style. The restructuring of the XVI century made in the building elements of flamboyant Gothic. The Cathedral is called “bell tower of France” – the two towers as much as 19 bells.

2. NOTRE DAME D AMIENS is the large Cathedral in the country, another example of the “pure” Gothic. It was built quickly – between 1220 and 1288 a year. The haste arose because of the emergence in Amiens important relics, brought from the IV Crusade, fragment of the head of John the Baptist. It is stored here until now.

C SAINT-ÉTIENNE DE METZ arose from the merger of two churches: the Gothic nave in the thirteenth century built the Romanesque Church, consecrated in 1040. Located in Lorraine, Saint-Etienne is associated with the traditions of German architecture of the epoch of Otto. We know the name of the author of the stained glass of the fourteenth century in the Cathedral – Herman de Munster.

4. NOTRE-DAME DE REIMS called the “Royal Cathedral”. About 498 years here he baptized Clovis I, marking the beginning of the Christian authorities. And since the year 816, when Louis the Pious chose Reims Cathedral is the place of their coronation, here was enthroned monarchs of France. The stained glass Windows of the Cathedral (XIII century) – the oldest in the country.

5.DAME-DE-CHARTRES – the repository of the shroud of the virgin Mary and seems to be the most famous representatives of the “pure” Gothic. Construction began after the miraculous rescue relics from the fire of 1194, the year of the donations came from all over France. The Cathedral was consecrated in 1260, in the presence of king St. Louis and since then has remained almost untouched by time.

6.RANSMISION – the second highest in France after Strasbourg, its spire rises to 151 meters. The temple was continually rebuilt until the eighteenth century; from the original Romanesque Church only the crypt and the Gothic North tower and the portal.

7. NOTRE-DAME-D EVREUX, the construction of which began in the eleventh century, was in the thick of Anglo-French conflict of the XII-XIII centuries. In 1119 he survived the fire, along with 1126 1140 th was restored on the money of the English monarch, the new 1198-m the temple burned down again because of the worsening of the conflict between Richard the Lionheart and Philip Augustus. The Gothic look of the Cathedral acquired after the return of Evreux in the domain of the king of France in 1220.

8.SAINT-ÉTIENNE DE SENS – actually the first Gothic Cathedral in France. The beginning of its construction the historians date back to 1135, and finished it four centuries later.

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